Gender & Language 

A Guide to Web Resources

Web Project


Megan Arundel, Jason Edelheit, Carrie Mitchell & Bridget Nicholson

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, EdPsy 313, Fall 2001 (Gary Cziko, instructor)




Gender in ...Children's Picture Books - Sex Roles

This site contains an article that examines gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books, and the gender stereotypes developed by children under five. It is said that by the age of 5, most children have developed strong gender stereotypes.


Campbell Leaper research on gender differences: 5-11-98

This web site is an article that discusses how gender often does matter in communications between parents and children. UCSC (University of California-Santa Cruz) researchers find that differences in communication styles are not uniform. Instead they believe that the differences may be related to the conversation topics men and women select.


The Language and Gender Page

The Language and Gender Page provides information and resources about language and gender studies, an interdisciplinary field with connections to anthropology, cultural studies, education, ethnic studies, linguistics, literary studies, psychology, sociology, and women’s studies.

Gender Language Differences

This website offers several solutions for gender language differences, for verbal communication, and for non-verbal communication. It simply provides a lists of awarenesses, characteristics, and differences.


Gender Differences in Parent-Child Emotional Narratives

In this article, Fivush studies the Parent-Child interaction during emotional narratives. In her research, she differentiates the various ways in which boys and girls tell their stories. Furthermore, Fivush studies the mannerisms and language patterns of mothers and fathers when interacting with their children.


Sex Roles: A Journal of Research: Gender Differences in Emotional Languages in Picture Books

This article analyzes the strong influence of gender stereotypes in children's picture books on its readers. The study focuses on "character prevalence in titles, pictures and central role, and on gender differences in the types of activities associated with the characters."


Dyad Gender Differences in Preadolescents' Creative Stories

This article compares the creative stories written by individuals to creative stories written by a pair of same- or other-gender partners. The study focuses on the content (overt aggression, verbal aggression, relational aggression, pro-social behavior, negative emotion, positive emotion, and neutral/other) and the effects of the partner "variable" on the contextual approach of the stories.


Gender Differences in Communication

This site offers a list of questions about the gender differences, and then offers a brief but comprehensive look at each point.  The questions include: Do men and women differ in their communication experiences? Who talks the most? Who interrupts? Is there a "women's language" connoting uncertainty and deference? Does it matter? And more!


Gender and Third Party Abuse in Schools

Out of Australia, this Website documents an example of gender and third party abuse in schools and communities.  The story and the following commentary bring up several issues surround gender stereotypes and perceptions made by students, parents, and teachers.  The story reveals gender generalizations that also surround language and peer interaction.


Gender in Language

This site offers some hypothetical explanations for the reasons behind gender in language. Also, some gender-neutral terms are offered and a summary on the issue of gender in language.

 Gender Issues in Children's Literature

This is a wonderful site, especially for those of us who are going to be teachers. This website discusses how the ways in which genders are portrayed in children's books contributes to the image children develop of their gender roles.

The Struggle  for Gender-Free Language: Is It Over Yet?

This site looks at how all current style manuals address in one form or another the need for bias-free, inclusive language. Most writers and editors deal with this issue regularly and have installed mental alarm systems that go off when they sense bias or something that can be construed as bias.


Gender Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

This website provides an ERIC Digest #136 reveals that teachers differ in their perspectives on the role they should play in addressing gender issues, which is related to their individual beliefs about the nature of gender difference.

Gender Issues: What's In A Word? Grades 5 - 7

This is another great site, that shows level grades 5 - 7 objectives to sensitize students to the ways in which the language in the media can imply inequality between men and women.


Gender-Neutral Pronoun Frequently Asked Questions (GNP FAQ)

This website offers a comprehensive discussion of gender-neutral/gender-free pronouns in English over the centuries, such as 'sie', 'hir', 'ey', 'zie', singular their, and many others. This is a very unique and informative site.

Gender Differences in K-12 Education

This website identifies “the gender gaps in K-12 education that have been reported in literature.”  It provides information on the gender gap in math, science, and graduation gaps, as well as gaps in self-esteem levels, and personal perceptions of ability.  This website also provides links to theories that explain gender gaps in education and conclusions and recommendations towards decreasing or eliminating gender gaps in education.



Gender Differences in Childhood

This website explores “significant gender experiments in psychological theory “completed by Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg.”  It uses actual dialogue and conversation between children so as to further explain the gender differences found in young children.



Gender, Language, and CMC

This website explains the “socialized conceptions of how women and men speak differently as well as how persons of different cultures express themselves.”  It explains how women tend to use more emotional language as well as the distinctive differences found between men and women vocabularies.  This website also offers other links to socio-emotional and relational communication differences as well as pseudonyms and managing identity.



Differences in Maternal and Paternal Behavior

This website explores the many differences found between father-infant interactions and mother-infant interactions.  It stresses the fact that fathers are more into active play with children while mothers tend to take on the role of a calm, nurturing caregiver.  Information is also provided on how to purchase the Father Facts catalogue so as to gain further knowledge on the differences in maternal and paternal behaviors.


Behavior due to Sex Correlated Differences

This website provides information on the different communication styles and the differences in socializing patterns with co-workers.  Along with each statement about a particular difference between men and women, there is a link, which provides specific information in terms of research experiments or statistics for each individual difference mentioned.  Some links also provide a list of other resources so as to further one’s knowledge on gender differences in communication styles.





Megan Arundel

Before doing this project, I was not aware of the abundance of research that has been done on the language difference between men and women.  We found many different web sites that dealt with gender issues in the classrooms as well as in children’s picture books.  I never realized that many children’s books have stereotypical gender roles that affect the way that children think.  This project brought these issues to my attention.  I am glad that I am aware of these differences and will use this knowledge in the future.


Jason Edelheit

I found it most beneficial to go through the process of making perhaps the most popular information-sharing tool of this cyber age.  Websites have become an easily accessed, widespread element of education today.  The array of topics on the World Wide Web is limitless.  In regards to our topic, I learned how pervasive misperceptions, generalizations, and stereotypes surrounding gender are in schools and society.  The web provided examples of gender differences, other resources, and advocacy information.


Carrie A. Mitchell

When I started the search for the websites, I was afraid I was not going to find much of anything. I was really surprised and relieved to discover so many interesting and informative websites on this topic. Gender issues and language truly is an international problem, from the US to China to Australia, and this project has opened my eyes to that. I also found it really neat to learn more about how I, as a future educator, can work with my students to stop the issues and problems that have developed within gender issues and language.


Bridget Nicholson

 I learned much useful information by completing this project.  I was never aware of the drastic differences found between men and women.  After completing this project, and learning all these differences, I have now become much more aware and tolerant of the opposite sex.  I found this project to be very interesting, especially in regards to the differences found in communication and behavior.  In addition to this, I also learned how to create a web page, something I would have never completed on my own.