Special thanks go to Whitney Chadwick for her wonderful look at female Surrealistes in her book Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement. Without this resource, these pages could never have been produced.

AGAR, Eileen

English painter. Born 1899 in Buenos Aires. Her family returned to England in 1911. Studied with Leon Underwood in 1924, attended the Slade School of Art in 1925 and 1926, and sludied art in Paris from 1928 to 1930. She saw her first Surrealist work in a gallery in Paris around 1929; met the poet Paul Eluard at that time. A member of the London group since 1933, her work was selected by Herbert Read and Roland Penrose for the 1936 Surrealist exhibition in London, and she was one of two English artists whose work was illustrated in the catalogue of the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition the following year. After 1936, she experimented with automatic techniques and new materials, made collages and objects, and exhibited with the Surrealists in England and abroad. The war disrupted her painting and she did not start working seriously again until 1946; since then she has had sixteen one woman exhibitions, five of them at the New Art Centre in London. In 1984 the Tate Gallery purchased her object Angel of Anarchy, first exhibited in 1936. Now Ijves and works in London. Exhibitions: London (1936), NewYork (1937), Tokyo (1937), Paris (1938), Amsterdam (1938), London (1940).

Bridgwater, Emmy

English painter. Born 1902 in Birmingham. Studied fine arts in Birmingham, Oxford, and at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London. Exhibited in Birmingham with the Birmingham Group, including Conroy Maddox and John Melville. Through them she met E. L. T. Mesens and other members of the London Surrealist Group in 1940. Contributed automatic poems and drawings to the reviews Arson and Free Unions Libras. Now lives in London. Exhibition: Paris (1947).


English painter and writer, Born 1917 in Lancashire. Attended schools in Englatld, Florence, and Paris before enrolling ache Amedee Ozenfant Academy, London, in 1936. Met Max Ernst in London in 1937 and moved to Paris with him. The couple lived for two years at St. Martin d'Ardeche where Carrington wrote her first short stories, "The House of Fear" and "The Oval Lady," published with illustrations by Ernst. She fled St. Martin d'Ardeche in 1940 after Ernst's internment as an enemy alien, suffered a nervous breakdown, and was institutionalized in Spain. Reunited with the Surrealists in New York, she contributed drawings and stories to View and VVV before settling in Mexico in 1942. First one-woman exhibition at the Pierre Matisse Gallety, New York, in 1948; retrospective exbitions held at the Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, Mexico City (1960) and the Center for Inter-American Relations in NewYork (1976). In addition to having had numerous exhibitions of her paintings, she is the author of two novels, two plays, and several collections of short stories. In 1963 she painted a large mural The Magic World of the Mayans, for the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Now lives and works in Mexico and New York.


English painter and writer. Born in 1906 in Assam,India. Educated at Cheltenham College and the Slade School of Art but was largely self-taught. After joining the English Sub Group in 1939 and participating in the Living Art in Englant exhibition, she contributed to the London Bulletin, but refused in 1940 to abandon her work on occultism and left the group. She experimented with automatism, decalcomania,sfumage, frottage, and collage, publishing the results of her investigations in "The Mantic Stain" (Enquiry, 1949). First one-woman exhibition at the Cheltenham Municipal Gallery in 1936; exhibitions since then include a retrospective in 1976 at the Newlyn Orion Galleries in Cornwall. She is the author of a Surrealist occult novel, The Goose of Hermogenes, published in 1961 by Peter Owen Ltd., travel books on Cornwall and Ireland, and several volumes of poetry. Now lives in Cornwall.

German. Born 1906 in Mulhouse, died 1946 in Paris. Met Paul Eluard in 1930 while working as a model for sentimental postcards and as a walk-on at the Grand Guignol. Married Eluard in 1934. Associated with the Surrealists during the 1930s. Model for Man Ray and author of a series of photomontages between 1934 and 193G. Collages published in 1978 by Editions Nadada, New York.

FINI, Leonor

Painter. Born in 1918 in Buenos Aires of Spanish/ ltalian/ Agentine parents; raised in Trieste from the age of two years. As an adolescent she studied Renaissance and Mannerist painting during visits to European museums; in her uncle's large library she discovered the Pre-Raphaelites, Aubrey Beardsley, Klimt, the German and Flemish Romantics. She exhibited for the first time at the age of seventeen in a group exhibition in 'l'rieste and was invited to Milan to execute her first portrait commission. While there she became friends with the painters Funi, Carra, Tosi. Arrived Paris in 1936; friendships with Eluard, Ernst, Magritte, and Brauner moved her close to the Surrealist circle. Participated in Surrealist exhibitions though not a member of the group; first one-woman exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York, in I 939. Spent the war years in Monte Carlo and Rome, returning to Paris in 1946. Continues to pursue an active career as a painter, theater designer, and illustrator. Retrospective exhibitions at the Casino Communale, KnokkeleZoute (1965), Japan (1972), Musee Ingres, Montauban (1981), and the Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara (1983). Now lives and works in Paris and the Loire Valley. Exhibitions: London (1936), New York (1937), Tokyo (1937).

HUGO, Valentine

French painter and illustrator. Born 1887 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, died 1968 in Paris. Studied painting in Paris; in 1919 married Jean Hugo, greatgrandson of Victor Hugo. Collaborated with him on designs for the ballet including Cocteau's Maries de la hour Egel (1921); in 1926 executed twenty-four wood engravings after maquettes by Jean Hugo for Romeo and Juliette. Met the Surrealists around 1928 and actively particidated in the movement between 1930 and 1936. The foremost illustrator of Eluard's work, she first exhibited with the Surrealists in the Salon des Surindependants of 1933. Her many illustrations include: Lautreamont, C'hantsdeMaldoror(1933); Achim d'Arnim's Contes Aizarres (1933); Rimbaud, Les Poetes de Sept Ans (1939); Eluard, tes Animaux et fears Hommes (1937). A retrospective exhibition of her work was held at the Centre Culturel Thibaud de Champagne, Troyes, in 1977. Exhibition Tenerife (1935), Copenhagen (1935), New York (1937), Tokyo (1937).

KAHLO, Frida

Mexican painter. Born in Coyoacan, a suburb of Mexico City, in 1910 of German/lndian/Spanish parents; died 1954 in Mexico. A devastating streetcar accident when she was fifteen years old left her crippled and in pain for much of the remainder of her life. Taught herself to paint while convalescing; married painter Diego Rivera in 1929. Breton discovered her work in Mexico in 1938; in 1939 he claimed her as Surrealist in his introduction to her first exhibition, at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York. The following year he and Duchamp arranged her first Paris exhibition at the Pierre Colle Gallery. Thought of herself as a Mexican artist and a realist rather than a Surrealist. First major exhibition in Mexico at the Gallery of Contemporary Art, Mexico City, in l953; a retrospective exhibition was held at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1977. Exhibitions: Mexico City (1940), New York (1942).


Danish painter. Born in Hillerod, Denmark, in 1904. Studied at the Art Academy of Copenhagen and in Paris with Leger (193031). First one-woman exhibition Copenhagen (Kunsthandel Chr. Larsen) in 1934; that year met the Danish Surrealist group. Exhibited with the Surrealists beginning 1935 in Copenhagen, Oslo, Lund, London, and Paris. Lived in London during the Second World War where she attended meetings and participated in exhibitions of the London Surrealist Group. Now lives and works in Denmark, England, and in the south of France. Exhibitions: Copenhagen (1935), Paris (1938), London (1940).

LAMBA (BRETON), Jacqueline

French painter. Born in Paris in 1910. Studied decorative arts in Paris. Married Andre Breton in 1934 and was the subject of many of his poems of those years including "La Nuit de Tournesol" which anticipated their meeting. Began exhibiting objects and drawings with the Surrealists. Arriving in New York, she developed automatism into a series of intense prismatic paintings close in spirit to the abstract work of Matta and Masson. Separated from Breton in 1943 and later married the American sculptor and photographer David Hare. First onewoman exhibition at the Norlyst Gallery, New York, in 1944. Also exhibited al the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (1946) and Galerie Pierre, Paris (1947). Now lives in Paris. Exhibitions: London (1936), Tokyo (1937).

MAAR, Dora

French photographer and painter. Born in Tours in 1909 of a Yugoslavian father and a French mother. Studied painting in Paris at the Ecole d Art Decoratif, Academie de Passy, Academie Julien, and with Andre Lhote. Gave up painting for photography during the mid 1930s; associated with the Surrealists between 1934 and 1937. First photography exhibition at the Galerie de Beaune, Paris, in 1937. One-woman exhibitions of painting in Paris at Jeanne Bucher (1943) and Pierre Loeb (1945). After a period of semimonastic life devoted to mystical experience, began exhibiting her paintings again during the 1950s. Has renounced her earlier association with Surrealism and now lives in Menerbes (Vaucluse). Exhibitions: Tenerife (1935), London (1936), New York (1937), Tokyo (1937), Amsterdam (193S).


American photographer. Born in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1908, died 1977 in Sussex, England. Studied at the Art students League in New York before moving to Paris in 1929. Worked with Man Ray from 1929 to 1932. Opened own photo studio in New York in 1932; first one-woman exhibition the following year at Julien Levy Gallery. Returned to Paris in 1937 after marriage to a wealthy Egyptian; met Roland Penrose at a Surrealist costume party. Moved to England in 1939 and began photographing for Vogue. Grim Glory, her photographs of the London Blitz, published in 1941 in London and New York. Worked as a war correspondent for Conde Nast publications. Gave up photography after the war and turned her attention to cooking. Exhibitions: London (1940), Paris (1947).


Swiss painter and sculptor. Born 1913 in Berlin-Charlottenburg. Moved to Paris in 1932 where she studied briefly at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere before being introduced to the Surrealists by Alberto Giacometti and Hans Arp the following year. First exhibited with the group in the Salon des Surindependants in 1933 and participated in Surrealist meetings and exhibitions until 1937 and again, more sporadically, after the war until shortly before Breton's death in 1966. First one-woman exhibition at the Galerie Schulthess, Basel, in 1933. Her fur-lined teacup, exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1937, was chosen by visitors to the exhibition as the quintessential Surrealist symbol. Oppenheim's return to Basel in 1937 marked the beginning of an eighteen-year period of artistic crisis and redirection. In 1939 she took part in an exhibition of fantastic furniture with Leonor Fini, Max Ernst, and others at the Galerie Rene Druin and Leo Castelli in Paris. A major retrospective of her work was organized by the Moderna Museet in Stockholm in 1967. Now lives and works in Berne and Paris. Exhibitions: Tenerife (1935), Copenhagen (1935), London (1936), New York (1957), Paris (1958), Mexico City (1940), New York (1942).


English physician and painter. Born in Surrey in 1890, died in 1971. Studied medicine and worked as a surgeon during the First World War. Traveled around the world, returning to England in 1922 where she took up the study of psychological medicine. Published Studies in the Psychology of Delinquency and, in 1928, founded the first institute in the world devoted to the scientific treatment of delinquency. Began research into the psychology of automatism in 1935 with Reuben Mednikoff and the following year began exhibiting drawings and paintings with the Surrealists. Published '&The Scientific Aspect of Surrealism" in the London Bulletin in December 1938. Exhibitions: London (1936), New York (1937).

PENROSE, Valentine

French poet. Born in Gascotly in 1898, died in 1978. Married Roland Penrose in 1925 and moved in the Surrealist milieu of the late 1920s and early 1930s without officially joining the movement. Published her first volume of poetry, Herbe a la Lone, in 1935 with a preface by Eluard who also contributed an introduction to her Dons des Feminines, a cycle of poems and collages published in Paris in 1951. A selection of her poems and other writings, Poems and Narrations, was published in English in 1976 by Carcanet Press.


French poet and painter. Born in France in 1916. Married to Wolfgang Paalen; associated with the Surrealists during the late 1930s. In 1939 she and Paalen settled in Mexico where she began to paint and contribute poems and drawings to Dyn. First one-woman exhibition in 1944 at the Galeria de Arte Mexicano in Mexico Citv; subsequent exhibitions at Stendahl Art Galleries, Los Angeles (1945); Nierendorf Gallery, New York (1946): Willard Gallery, New York (1948 and 1951). Now lives in San Angel, a suburb of Mexico City. Exhibition: Mexico City (1940).


English painter. Born in Leicester in 1902. Began making automatic drawings around 1937 or 1938. Introduced to E.L. Mesens and the London Surrealist Group in 1939 by Gordon Onslow-Ford. Attended most weekly meetings of the group at the Barcelona Restaurant in Soho or the Horseshoe Pub in Tottenham Court Road. Did very little painting during the war but contributed automatic drawings and texts to the London Bulletin, Arson, Fulcrum, Message From Nowhere, Free Unions Libres between 1940 and 1946. Now lives in Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex. Exhibitions: London (1940), Paris (1947).


American painter and poet. Born in Albany, New York, in 1898, died in 1963 in Woodbury, Connecticut. After her parents' separation in 1900 lived abroad with her mother; in 1925 married Prince Ranieri di San Faustino and for ten years lived in Rome and Rapallo. First one-woman exhibition at the Galeria del Milione, Milan, in 1936. Divorced and living in Paris, she exhibited a single painting in the 1937 Salon des Surinipendants and was discovered by the Surrealists. Returned to the United States after the outbreak of World War 11 and, in 1940, married Yves Tanguy in New York. First American exhibition in 1940. Exhibited regularly from 1940 to her death by suicide. A joint exhibition of the work of Sage and Tanguy was held at the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, in 1954; retrospective exhibitions at the Catherine Viviano Gallery, New York (1960), and at the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University (1g76). Sage was also the author of four volumes of poetry. Exhibitions: New York (1942), Paris (1947).


American painter. Born in Galesburg, Illinois, in 1912. Attended the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932. Moved to New York where the 1937 exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism decided her future as a painter. Traveled to Europe in 1939 with letters of introduction to several Surrealist painters but found Paris deserted. Returning to New York she met Max Ernst in 1942; first one-woman exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery in 1944. Married Ernst in 1946 and the couple lived in Sedona, Arizona, Huismes, and Paris until Ernst's death in 1976. Numerous one-woman exhibitions since 1944; retrospective exhibitions of her work held at the Casino Communale, Knokke-le-Zoute (1967) and the Centre National d'Art Contemporain, Paris (1974). Now lives and works in New York. Exhibition: Paris (1947).

TOYEN (Marie Cerminova)

Czech painter. Born in Prague in 1902, died 1980 in Paris. Attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Prague and in 1922 met Jindrich Styrsky in Yugoslavia. Styrsky and Toyen became members of the Czech avant-garde group Devetsil in 1923 In Paris, 1925 to 1928, Toyen embraced "poetic artificialism"; first exhibition with Styrsky at the Galerie d'Art Contemporain, Paris, in 1927. Returned to Prague in 1928; the following year began transition to Surrealism. Founder and member of the Surrealist Group in Prague from 1934 until the German occupation of Czechoslovakia forced her underground. Executed three cycles of drawings before and during the war: The Spectres of the Dessert (1937-38), TheRifle-Range (1939-40), and Hide Yourself War (1944), published in 1946. Settled in Paris in 1947 where she remained until the end of her life. A retrospective exhibition of the work of Toyen, Styrsky, and Jindrich Heisler was held at the Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, in 1982. Exhibitions: London (1936), Tokyo (1937), Paris (1938), Amsterdam (1938), Paris (1947).

VARO, Remedios

Spanish painter. Born in Angles, Spain, in 1908, died 1963 Mexico City. Childhood travels in Spain and North Africa with her father, a hydraulic engineer, sparked a lifelong interest in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and fantastic locomotive vehicles. Attended convent schools and the Acadelllia de San Fernando in Madrid; after a brief marriage to a fellow student met the Surrealist poet Benjamin Peret in Barcelona where she had moved to become part of a more avant garde milieu. Settled in Paris with Peret and was active in Surrealist circles there between 1937 and 1939. Forced to leave France for political reasons, the couple settled and married in Mexico in 1942, where Varo remained for the rest of her life. First one-woman exhibition in 1956 at the Galeria Diana in Mexico City; her retrospective at the Museo de Arte Moderno in 1971 drew the largest audiences in Mexican history. Exhibitiorzes: Tokyo (1937), Paris (1938), Amsterdam (1938), Mexico City (1940), NewYork (1942), Pans (1947).